CIESM Hydrochanges Program
Continuous, long-term measurements of temperature & salinity of Mediterranean deep waters in key areas a priority in the current context of global warming.

Coordination: Katrin Schroeder
CNR – ISMAR, Institute for Marine Science, Venice, Italy

Fig. 1  Hydrochanges Program Network
The numbers refer to details of each site, which are listed in Table 1 (below): institutes involved, position, time frame, instruments and measured parameters for each depth.

Recent papers stemming from the CIESM Hydrochanges Program:

  • K. Schroeder, J. Chiggiato, S. A. Josey, M. Borghini, S. Aracri & S. Sparnocchia. 2017. Rapid response to climate change in a marginal sea. Sci. Rep. 7, 4065 doi:10.1038/s41598-017-04455-5
  • Schroeder K., Chiggiato J., Bryden H.L., Borghini M. and S. Ben Ismail, 2016. Abrupt climate shift in the Western Mediterranean Sea. Sci. Rep. 6, 23009; doi: 10.1038/srep23009.
  • Millot C., 2014. Heterogeneities of in- and out-flows in the Mediterranean Sea. Progress in Oceanography, 120: 254-278,
  • Schroeder K., Millot C., Bengara L., Ben Ismail S., Bensi M., Borghini M., Budillon G., Cardin V., Coppola L., Curtil C., Drago A., El Moumni B., Font J., Fuda J.L., García-Lafuente J., Gasparini G.P., Kontoyiannis H., Lefevre D., Puig P., Raimbault P., Rougier G., Salat J., Sammari C., Sánchez Garrido J.C., Sanchez-Roman A., Sparnocchia S., Tamburini C., Taupier-Letage I., Theocharis A., Vargas-Yáñez M. and Vetrano A., 2013. Long-term monitoring programme of the hydrological variability in the Mediterranean Sea: a first overview of the HYDROCHANGES network. Ocean Sci. , 9: 301-324, doi:10.5194/os-9-301-2013.
  • Millot C. and Garcia-Lafuente J., 2011. About the seasonal and fortnightly variabilities of the Mediterranean outflow. Ocean Sci., 7: 421-428, doi:10.5194/os-7-421-2011. Download
  • Schroeder K., Cardin V., Font J., Fuda J., Garcia Lafuente J., Puig P., Taupier-Letage I. and others, 2010. HYDROCHANGES network: latest observations and links between time series. Rapp. Comm. Int. Mer Medit., 39: 180. Venice, May 2010. Download
  • Millot C., 2009. Another description of the Mediterranean Sea outflow. Progr. Oceanogr., 82: 101-124. Download
  • Millot C., 2007. Interannual salinification of the Mediterranean inflow. Geophys. Res. Lett., 34, L21609, doi:10.1029/2007GL031179. Download
  • García Lafuente J., Sánchez Román A., Díaz del Río G., Sannino G. and Sánchez Garrido J.C., 2007. Recent observations of seasonal variability of the Mediterranean outflow in the Strait of Gibraltar. J. Geophys. Res.12, C10005, doi:10.1029/
    2006JC003992. Download
  • Font J., Puig P., Salat J., Palanques A. and Emelianov M., 2007. Sequence of hydrographic changes in NW Mediterranean deep water due to the exceptional winter of 2005. Sci. Mar., 71(2): 339-346.
  • Fuda J.-L., Font J., García Lafuente J., Gasparini G.P., Millot C. and Others. 2007.  Hydrochanges: first results and perspectives. Rapp. Comm. Int. Médit. 38, p. 27. Download
  • Millot C., Fuda J.-L., Candela J., Tber Y., and Rougier G., 2007. Hydrochanges at Gibraltar. Rapp. Comm. Int. Médit. 38, p. 172. Download
  • Millot C., Fuda J.-L., Candela J. and Tber Y., 2006. Large warming and salinification of the Mediterranean outflow due to changes in its composition, Deep Sea Research I, pp. 656-666 . Download

Table 1   Contributing institutes and details of the monitored site.

Brief description of the program:

In situ measurements of temperature and salinity, collected with adequate spatial and temporal resolutions, and with particular attention to sensitive, often long-neglected Mediterranean areas (straits and channels, zones of dense water formation, deeper parts of the basins), constitute a priority, particularly in the current context of global climate change. To this effect, our CIESM program is deploying/ monitoring an array of stations that could be viewed in time as the marine counterpart of meteorological stations. A station is composed of a short (~10 m high) subsurface mooring equipped with an autonomous CTD (1 to 2-hr sampling interval) and usually a current-meter. Moorings are set in place close to the seabed at depths ranging from 300 to 2,500 m, for periods of 1-2 years before recovery (for maintenance and calibration) and re-deployment, by scientific teams and/ or hydrographic services of participating countries. More than twenty stations are already in operation, plus those susceptible to be deployed soon, are indicated on the map below.

List of Hydrochanges Partners:

Rosa Balbín   (IEO, Spain)
Sana Ben Ismail    (INSTM-Tunis, Tunisia)
Lahoucine Bengara   (Univ. Abdelmalek Essaâdi, Tanger, Maroc)
Manuel Bensi   (OGS, Trieste, Italy)
Mireno Borghini   (CNR-ISMAR, Italy)
Giorgio Budillon   (DiSAm, Naples, Italy)
Vanessa Cardin   (OGS-Trieste, Italy)
Laurent Coppola   (Observatoire Oceanologique, Villefranche-sur-mer, France)
Christian Curtil   (Univ. Med., France)
Aldo Drago    (Malte)
Bouchta El Moumni   (Univ. Abdelmalek Essaâdi Tanger, Maroc)
Jordi Font    (ICM-CSIC, Spain)
Jesus Garcia Lafuente   (Univ. Malaga, UMA, Spain)
Gianpietro Gasparini    (ISMAR, Italy)
Harilaos Kontoyiannis   (HCMR, Greece)
Leonardo Langone   (ISMAR, Italy)
Dominique Levefre   (ANTARES Group, France)
Jose Luis López-Jurado   (IEO, Spain)
Ferial Louanchi   (ENSSMAL, Algeria)
Claude Millot   (CNRS, France)
Stefano Miserocchi   (ISMAR, Italy)
Pere Puig   (ICM-CSIC, Spain)
Jordi Salat   (ICM-CSIC, Spain)
Cherif Sammari    (INSTM-Tunis, Tunisia)
Antonio J. Sánchez Román   (Univ. Malaga, UMA, Spain)
Stefania Sparnocchia   (CNR, Italy)
Christian Tamburini    (ANTARES Group, France)
Isabelle Taupier-Letage   (MIO, CNRS Aix-Marseille University, France)
Alex Theocharis   (HCMR, Greece)
Manuel Vargas    (IEO, Spain)
Anna Vetrano    (ISMAR, Italy)