Hypselodoris infucata
(Rüppell and Leuckart, 1830)

Relevant Synonyms
Doris infucata Rüppell and Leuckart, 1828
Chromodoris runcinata Bergh, 1877
Glossodoris runcinata Barash and Danin, 1977
Chromodoris semperi Bergh, 1877

Hypselodoris obscura (Stimpson, 1855)

 photo: Haluk Akbatur    

Body elongated, relatively high in the middle, with a narrow overhang of the mantle edges along the sides, widening anteriorly. Rhinophores lamellated and retractile. Gils forming a circle of 10-12 plumes posteriorly around the anus.

color : color pattern rather complex and variable that results from a combination of different proportions of the basic colors. Background body color cream or greenish. Edge of the notum pale blue with a line of darker blue and yellow spots. Surface of notum sprinkled with small yellow dots, dark spots and an irregular and variable pattern of white pigmentation along the axis. Rhinophores bright orange-red with a white stalk. Gill plumes white each with a reddish rachis.

common size : 30-40 mm, max. 55 mm.

Hypselodoris infucata belongs to a complex of very closely related species in the Indo-Pacific region (Rudman, 1973, 1977), under revision by Johnson and Valdés (2001). Sometimes it has been confused with H. obscura (Stimpson, 1855). All Mediterranean species of the genus Hypselodoris have a pattern of yellow or white longitudinal bands over a dark blue background color. Hypselodoris infucata clearly differs from them by the red pigmentation of rhinophores and branchial plume and by its color pattern of yellow and blue spots over a cream or greenish background.

The reproduction and larval development have been studied by Hubbard (1988). Adults lay spiralled, whitish, ribbon-like egg masses. The veliger larvae hatch after about five days at 25°C and can lead a planktonic life for about three weeks.

habitat : on rocky bottoms of the infralittoral zone. Species very tolerant to harbour conditions.

1st Mediterranean record
Israel, 1977 [1965].

Worldwide: originally described from the Red Sea, very common in the Indo-Pacific, where it has been reported under different names (Johnson and Valdés, 2001). Mediterranean: recorded first in 1965 from Caesarea, Israel as Glossodoris runcinata (Barash and Danin, 1977a); later in Turkey (Çevik and Öztürk, 2001), and Lebanon (collected by G. Bitar and H. Zibrowius, Valdés and Templado, 2002).

Very common in the Levantine Sea where it is found all year around.

speculated reasons for success :

Possibly via the Suez Canal.



  • Barash A. and Danin Z., 1977a. Additions to the knowledge of Indo-Pacific Mollusca in the Mediterranean. Conchiglie, 13(5-6): 85-116.
  • Çevik C. and Öztürk B., 2001. A new lessepsian mollusc Hypselodoris infucata (Rüppell and Leuckart, 1830 (Gastropoda: Nudibranchia) for the coasts of Turkey. Turkish Journal of Zoology, 25: 27-30.
  • Johnson R.F. and Valdés A., 2001. The Hypselodoris infucata, H. obscura and H. saintvicentius species complex (Mollusca, Nudibranchia, Chromodorididae), with remarks on the genus Brachychlanis Ehrenberg, 1831. Journal of Natural History, 35: 1371-1398.


  • Mienis H.K. and Gat G., 1981a. On the presence of the Indo-Pacific Nudibranch Hypselodoris infucata along the Mediterranean coast of Israel. Argamon, 7(4): 51-52.
  • Valdés A. and Templado J., 2002. Indo-Pacific dorid nudibranchs collected in Lebanon (Mediterranean Sea). Iberus, 20(2): 23-30.


Last update : December 2003

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