ENGRAULIDAE
Anchovies

  Stolephorus indicus
(Van Hasselt, 1823)

Relevant synonyms
None

Misidentification
None

Meristic formula
D, 15-17; A, 19-21; P, 13-16; V, 7; LL,

 photo : D.Golani    

SHORT DESCRIPTION
Body slender, round in cross-section, becoming slightly compressed in the belly. Pointed snout with upper jaw much longer than lower jaw. 2-6 (usually 3-5) pre-pelvic scutes. A single dorsal fin at the middle of the body. Anal fin origin slightly behind dorsal fin origin. Forked caudal fin. Small pectoral fin, originated at the vertical line of posterior edge of the operculum. Origin of pelvic fin in front of dorsal fin.

color : Body light grey to almost transparent with a clear silver stripe on the flank.

size : Common 7-12 cm (max. 15 cm)

DISTINGUISHING CHARACTERISTICS

  • Engraulis encrasicolus – no scutes on the belly.
  • Encrasicolina gloria- Ismuth muscle not reaching forward to gill membrane.
  • Stolephorus insularis- 4-8 (usually 6-7) needle-like scutes on the belly, head length 3.7-4.1 times in SL.

    BIOLOGY / ECOLOGY
    Inshore-pelagic schooling species. Feeding on zooplankton. Reaching sexual maturity at 9 cm. Oval eggs with small knob at one pole.

    habitat : Coastal species that enters estuaries.


  • 1st MEDITERRANEAN RECORD
    Israel (2015).


    DISTRIBUTION
    Worldwide : Wide Indo-Pacific distribution.

    Mediterranean : Israel

    ESTABLISHMENT SUCCESS
    To date, recorded only from Israel. Probably found also in adjacent countries but may have been overlooked in the Mediterranean, due to its external similarity to other engraulids in the region.

     


    MODE OF INTRODUCTION
    Via the Suez Canal


    IMPORTANCE TO HUMANS
    Unknown


    KEY REFERENCES

    • Fricke, R., D. Golani and B. Appelbaum Golani 2015. First record of the Indian anchovy Stolephorus indicus (van Hasselt, 1823) (Clupeiformes: Engraulidae) in the Mediterranean Sea). Marine Biodiversity Records 4(4), 293-297.
    • Whitehead, P.J.P., 1985. Clupeoid fishes of the world (suborder Clupeoiei) Part 2 Engraulidae- An annotated and illustrated catalogue of the Herrings, Sardines, Pilchard, Sprats, Shads, Anchovies and Wolf-herrings. FAO Species Catalogue. FAO, UN, Rome. VIII+305 pp.

    FEEDBACK / COMMENTS TO AUTHORS



    Last update of the species sheet :
    January 2017

    ciesm 2001