PINGUIPEDIDAE
sand perches

  Pinguipes brasilianus
Cuvier and Valenciennes, 1829

Relevant synonyms
Pinguipes fasciatus

Misidentification
None

Meristic formula
D, VII+24-27; A, I+24; P, 17; V, I+5; LL, 98

 photo : Marco Relini    

SHORT DESCRIPTION
Body robust, thickest behind head and insertion of the pectorals, becoming progressively compressed toward the tail. Head conical, antero-inferior mouth with thick lips. Upper jaw protruding. Eye oval and oblique. Interorbital larger than twice eye diameter. Operculum ending with spine covered partially by skin. Pectoral rounded, pelvic thick and fleshy especially in the outer side. Dorsal and anal fins extend with constant height toward the caudal peduncle, where they end symmetrically. Caudal truncate, with small upper portion protruding.

color : variable with sex and age. In the Mediterranean specimens, the color was brown on dorsal surfaces and light brown on the ventral surface. Twelve brown bands on flank; after the second band, alternately large and thin. Dark spot at base of caudal rays above the lateral line.

size : common 30-50 cm (max. 70 cm).

DISTINGUISHING CHARACTERISTICS
Labridae: anal fin less than one-third of SL. (Pinguipes brasilianus - more than one-third).



BIOLOGY / ECOLOGY

Carnivorous species feeding primarily on molluscs, crustaceans and other benthic invertebrates.

habitat : shallow coastal waters, on different kinds of substrata, but especially sand.


1st MEDITERRANEAN RECORD
Ligurian Sea and Messina, Italy, 2002 (specimens 1990).


DISTRIBUTION
Worldwide : Argentina, Uruguay, Brazil. Mediterranean : recorded first in 1990 at Loano, Ligurian Sea, and Messina (Orsi-Relini, 2002).

ESTABLISHMENT SUCCESS
Very rare.

speculated reasons for success :


MODE OF INTRODUCTION
Probably ballast waters.


IMPORTANCE TO HUMANS
None in the Mediterranean. Exploited by South American fisheries.


KEY REFERENCES

  • Orsi Relini L., 2002. The occurence of the South American fish Pinguipes brasilianus, Cuvier in Cuvier and Valenciennes, 1829 (Pinguipedidae), in the Mediterranean. Cybium, 26(2): 147-149.
  • Rosa I.L. and Rosa R.S., 1997. Systematic revision of the South American species of Pinguipedidae (Teleostei, Trachinoidei). Revta Brasileira de Zoologia, 14(4): 845-865.

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Last update of the species sheet:
April 2002

©ciesm 2002